About 70 percent of steel today is made how it鈥檚 always been made: in giant, extremely hot furnaces. Purified coal, or 鈥渃oke,鈥?isheated and melted with iron oxide and limestone, then injected with oxygento reduce the carbon content of the mixture and to remove impurities.
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How is steel made from carbon?
Steel is an alloy based primarily on iron. As iron occurs only as iron oxides in the earth鈥檚 crust, the ores must be converted, or 鈥榬educed鈥? using carbon. The primary source of this carbon is coking coal. Coke Making Coking coal is converted to coke by driving off impurities to leave almost pure carbon.
How is coal used to make steel?
Steel is an essential material for modern life and global steel production is dependent on coal – 70% of steel produced uses coal. Metallurgical coal 鈥?or coking coal 鈥?is a vital ingredient in the steel making process. Coking coal is converted to coke by driving off impurities to leave almost pure carbon. The coking coal is crushed and washed.
How much steel is produced from 1 ton of coal?
Around 0.6 tonnes (600 kg) of coke produces 1 tonne (1000 kg) of steel, which means that around 770 kg of coal are used to produce 1 tonne of steel through this production route. Basic Oxygen Furnaces currently produce about 70% of the world鈥檚 steel. A further 29% of steel is produced in Electric Arc Furnaces. Electric Arc Furnaces
How is coke used to make steel?
It is produced by baking coal until it becomes carbon by burning off impurities without burning up the coal itself. When coke is consumed it generates intense heat but little smoke, making it ideal for smelting iron and steel. Prior to the 1880鈥檚, steel was produced using charcoal. By 1920, nearly 90% of US steel was produced using coke.